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Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Hereditary diseases
a.
are caused by abnormal chromosomes or defective genes.
b.
are inherited from one or both parents.
c.
may involve a single gene, more than one gene, or a chromosome.
d.
all of the above
 

 2. 

A disorder in which the immune system responds to a harmless particle is an
a.
immune disorder.
c.
autoimmune disease.
b.
allergy.
d.
asthma attack.
 

 3. 

A disability
a.
can be physical or mental.
b.
interferes with a personís normal activity.
c.
may involve hearing, vision, or movement.
d.
all of the above
 

 4. 

The Americans with Disabilities Act
a.
helps create a positive environment for people with disabilities.
b.
narrows the scope of what disabled people can accomplish.
c.
has increased the segregation of people with disabilities in all aspects of social life.
d.
focuses mainly on creating handicapped parking spaces.
 

 5. 

Rheumatoid arthritis
a.
is a disorder in which the joints begin to wear out as a person grows older.
b.
is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack the fatty insulation of nerves.
c.
is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack the linings of the joints.
d.
is caused by deterioration of the cartilage inside a joint.
 

 6. 

Multiple sclerosis
a.
is an autoimmune disease.
b.
occurs when the body attacks myelin.
c.
causes the transmission of nerve impulses to slow down or stop.
d.
all of the above
 

 7. 

Single-gene diseases
a.
are affected by lifestyle behaviors.
b.
occur when one gene has a harmful mutation.
c.
include cardiovascular disease and cancer.
d.
are caused when a person inherits a single chromosome.
 

 8. 

Which statement best describes the relationship between immune disorders and autoimmune diseases?
a.
Immune disorders include autoimmune diseases, in which the immune system attacks the bodyís own cells.
b.
Immune disorders are a kind of autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the bodyís own cells.
c.
In both immune disorders and autoimmune diseases, the immune system attacks the bodyís own cells.
d.
There is no relationship between immune disorders and autoimmune diseases.
 

 9. 

Types of disabilities include
a.
disabilities involving vision, such as impaired vision and blindness.
b.
disabilities involving hearing, such as hearing loss, hearing impairment, or deafness.
c.
disabilities involving movement, such as Parkinsonís disease and Rett syndrome.
d.
all of the above
 

 10. 

Chromosomal diseases
a.
occur when a single gene on a chromosome is damaged.
b.
are strongly influenced by lifestyle behaviors.
c.
occur when a person inherits the wrong number ofĖor incompleteĖchromosomes.
d.
include Parkinsonís disease and rheumatoid arthritis.
 

 11. 

How can keeping accurate personal health records help a person cope with hereditary disease?
a.
It can help him or her keep up-to-date on medical advances.
b.
It can help the person know what to expect from the disease in the future.
c.
It can help his or her doctor develop a treatment plan.
d.
all of the above
 

 12. 

An immune disorder in which the airways constrict and become clogged with mucus is
a.
asthma.
c.
influenza.
b.
an allergic reaction.
d.
none of the above
 

 13. 

Gene therapy
a.
may be a future medical treatment for hereditary diseases.
b.
places a healthy copy of a gene into the cells of a person with a defective gene.
c.
requires that the information coded for by a gene can be read.
d.
all of the above
 

 14. 

To cope with an immune disorder or autoimmune disease, it is important to
a.
understand and follow the doctorís treatment plan.
b.
learn about the disease, its symptoms, its treatments, and side effects of medications.
c.
be honest with the doctor, and tell him or her if new symptoms occur.
d.
all of the above
 

 15. 

Over the years, prominent myths about disabilities have included
a.
that people with disabilities always need help and prefer to be with other disabled people.
b.
that limits caused by disabilities do not prevent a person from achieving his or her goals.
c.
that many people with disabilities are completely independent.
d.
all of the above
 

 16. 

Complex hereditary diseases
a.
occur when too many chromosomes are inherited.
b.
are influenced by more than one gene, as well as lifestyle factors.
c.
include Huntingtonís disease, sickle cell anemia, and hemophilia.
d.
are influenced by a harmful mutation on a single gene.
 

 17. 

A buzzing, ringing, or whistling sound in one or both ears that occurs even when no external sound is present is
a.
audiometry.
c.
tinnitus.
b.
cochlear degeneration.
d.
macular degeneration.
 

 18. 

Cystic fibrosis
a.
is caused by damage on more than one genes.
b.
is caused by lifestyle behaviors.
c.
is caused by a mutation on a single gene.
d.
is a chromosomal disease.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.

Completion (Answers)

a.

hereditary disease
 
 

 

a.

cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer
 

 

 

 

b.

genetic counseling
 

 

 

 

b.

antihistamines
 

 

 

 

c.

the Human Genome Project
 

 

 

 

c.

infection
 

 

 

 

d.

autoimmune disease
 
 
 

 

d.

exercise
 

 

 

 

e.

immune disorder
 
 

 

 

e.

cochlear implants
 

 

 

 

a.

genetic counselor
 
 

 

a.

macula
 

 

 

 

b.

genes
 

 

 

 

b.

Huntington's disease
 

 

 

 

c.

arthritis
 

 

 

 

c.

50 million
 

 

 

 

d.

glaucoma
 
 
 

 

d.

hemophilia
 

 

 

 

e.

disability
 
 

 

 

e.

honest
 

 

 

 

a.

laser surgery

 

 
 

 

a.

personal health record

 

 

19. 

A(n) ____________________ is a disease caused by abnormal chromosomes or by defective genes inherited by a child from one or both parents.

 20. 

One way of coping with hereditary diseases, _________________________, is the process of informing a person or couple about his or her genetic makeup.

 21. 

With information gathered from ______________________________, scientists hope to treat hereditary diseases in different ways, including designing drugs that target hereditary diseases, making drugs to prevent diseases, improving gene therapy, and creating genetic tests that can tell you which hereditary diseases you might develop in your lifetime.

 22. 

A disease in which the immune system attacks the cells of the body that it would normally protect is a(n) ____________________.

 23. 

A(n) ____________________ called asthma occurs when the muscles that surround the bronchioles constrict.

 24. 

A(n) ____________________ is a specialist in human genetics.

 25. 

Your hair color and eye color are determined by your ____________________.

 26. 

Inflammation of the joints is called ____________________.

 27. 

A condition in which there is increased pressure on the eye, called ____________________, causes vision impairment and eye damage, and is one of the major causes of blindness in the United States.

 28. 

A(n) ____________________ is a physical or mental impairment that interferes with a personís normal activity.

 29. 

Three examples of complex hereditary diseases are ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.

 30. 

Over-the-counter medicines to treat allergies are called ____________________.

 31. 

An ____________________ caused by pathogens with molecules similar to a bodyís own cells might cause the immune system to attack the bodyís own cells, triggering an autoimmune disease.

 32. 

Gentle ____________________ can help relieve some of the pain associated with the damaged joints caused by arthritis.

 33. 

Small, implanted devices that bypass damaged ear structures, _________________________ do not restore normal hearing, but permit better understanding of surrounding sounds.

 34. 

Damage to an area of the eye called the ____________________ leads to vision impairment.

 35. 

Symptoms of the fatal single-gene disease _________________________ include involuntary movements, mood swings, depression, irritability, and inability to remember facts.

 36. 

About ____________________ adults in the United States have tinnitus.

 37. 

In the single-gene disease ____________________, the body produces insufficient quantities or none of the blood proteins necessary for blood clotting.

 38. 

Being ____________________ with your doctor will help him or her give you good health advice about coping with immune disorders and autoimmune diseases.

 39. 

Vision problems may be corrected by eyeglasses, contact lenses, or new treatments such as ____________________.
 

 40. 

Information about the hereditary diseases your family members have had can be compiled in a complete _________________________ that will help your doctor coordinate your care.

Matching
 
 
Match each of the following diseases with its corresponding type
a.
Single-cell disease
c.
chromosomal disease
b.
a complex disease
 

 41. 

hemophilia
 

 42. 

Down syndrome
 

 43. 

cancer
 

 44. 

sickle cell anemia
 

 45. 

cardiovascular disease
 

 46. 

Trisomy 21
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section: Understanding Hereditary Diseases

Write the letter of the correct answer on the line.

______ 47. When a gene carries incorrect genetic information, it is called a(n)

a. hereditary disease.

b. mutation.

c. autoimmune disease.

d. chromosome.

______ 48. Types of hereditary diseases include

a. single-gene diseases.

b. complex diseases.

c. chromosomal diseases.

d. All of the above

______ 49. A potential future treatment for hereditary disease made possible by

the Human Genome Project is

a. gene therapy.

b. antibiotic therapy.

c. physical therapy.

d. occupational therapy.

______ 50. People with hereditary diseases can cope by using resources such as

a. gene therapy.

b. the Human Genome Project.

c. genetic counseling.

d. All of the above

______ 51. All of the following are true about hereditary diseases except

a. that they are caused by pathogens.

b. that they are caused by abnormal chromosomes or defective genes.

c. that they are inherited from one or both parents.

d. that they may involve a single gene or chromosome, or may be more complex.

Section: Understanding Immune Disorders and

Autoimmune Diseases

Match the terms on the bottom with their definitions on the top.

a. a disease in which the joints of the skeleton wear out as a person ages

b. a disorder that causes the airways to become narrow and clogged with mucus

c. an autoimmune disease in which the immune system begins to destroy the linings of the joints

d. itchy swellings on the skin caused by allergies to foods or certain drugs

e. a disease in which the immune system attacks the cells of the body that it would normally protect

______ 52. hives

______ 53. rheumatoid arthritis

______ 54. autoimmune disease

______ 55. asthma

______ 56. osteoarthritis

Section: Understanding Disabilities

PART I

Write the letter of the correct answer on the line.

______ 57. Myths about disabilities include

a. that people with disabilities prefer to be around only people with disabilities.

b. that people with disabilities always require help.

c. that disabilities limit a personís ability to achieve his or her goals.

d. All of the above

______ 58. A small, implanted device that bypasses the nonworking parts of the ear and helps some hearing-impaired individuals to better understand voices and noises in their surroundings is a(n)

a. cochlear implant.

b. audiometer.

c. hearing aid.

d. hearing implant.

PART II

Match the terms on the bottom with the definitions on the top.

a. a disability that interferes with a personís control over his or her body movements

b. buzzing, ringing, or tingling in one or both ears

c. legislation intended to make American society more accessible to people with disabilities

______ 59. tinnitus

______ 60. Americans with Disabilities Act

______ 61. Touretteís syndrome

Other Diseases and Disabilities

PART I

Match the terms on the left with the definitions on the right.

______ 62. disability

______ 63. hereditary disease

______ 64. hearing aid

______ 65. gene

______ 66. allergy

a. a physical or mental impairment or deficiency that interferes with a personís normal activity

b. a device that improves hearing for some people by amplifying sounds through a speaker

c. a reaction by the bodyís immune system to a harmless substance

d. a disease caused by abnormal chromosomes or by defective genes inherited by a child from one or both parents

e. a segment of a chromosome that codes for a specific hereditary trait.

PART II

Write the letter of the best answer on the line.

______ 67. People can cope with disabilities by

a. becoming educated about the ways in which society is becoming more accessible.

b. remaining at home, where it is safe.

c. recognizing that a disability is negative and learning how tominimize the disability.

d. All of the above

______ 68. Single-gene and complex diseases differ from chromosomal diseases

a. in that single-gene and complex diseases are caused by the wrong number of genes, while chromosomal diseases are caused by defects on one or more genes.

b. in that single-gene and complex diseases are the same, while chromosomal diseases are different.

c. in that single-gene diseases involve defects on one gene, and complex diseases involve defects on two or more genes, while chromosomal diseases are caused by incomplete or the wrong number of chromosomes.

d. in that single-gene and complex diseases are caused by the wrong number of chromosomes, while chromosomal diseases are caused by defects on chromosomes.

______ 69. What is the relationship between immune disorders and autoimmune diseases?

a. Immune diseases are a kind of autoimmune disorder in which the immune system does not function properly.

b. An immune disorder occurs when the immune system does not function properly; an autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system attacks the bodyís own cells.

c. Immune diseases and autoimmune disorders include asthma, allergies, and rheumatoid arthritis.

d. There is no relationship between immune diseases and autoimmune disorders.

______ 70. You can help provide a supportive environment for people with disabilities by

a. becoming educated about a disability, maintaining a positive outlook, and taking an active role in treatment.

b. reading the Americans with Disabilities Act.

c. fighting legislation that allows for more handicapped parking places and wheelchair ramps.

d. All of the above

______71. A person with a genetic disease can cope by

a. seeking genetic counseling.

b. keeping accurate medical records.

c. keeping up-to-date with the most current health information about the disease.

d. All of the above

______72. A condition in which the immune system attacks the fatty insulation of nerves in the brain and spinal cord is

a. rheumatoid arthritis.

b. severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

c. multiple sclerosis.

d. human immunodeficiency virus.

______73. An autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the joints is

a. osteoarthritis.

b. rheumatoid arthritis.

c. severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

d. multiple sclerosis.

______74. To cope with an immune disorder or autoimmune disease, a person can

a. understand the disorder and his or her treatment plan.

b. follow the treatment plan.

c. be honest with his or her doctor and notify him or her if a new symptom appears.

d. All of the above

______75. Tinnitus is an example of a disability

a. involving hearing.

b. involving vision.

c. involving movement.

d. None of the above

______76. An immune disorder in which the airways carrying air to the lungs become narrowed and clogged with mucus is

a. an allergy.

b. an antihistamine.

c. asthma.

d. atherosclerosis.

______77. Disabilities are classified according to type and

a. severity.

b. duration.

c. types of modifications needed.

d. All of the above

______ 78. Devices that improve hearing by amplifying sounds are called

a. audiometers.

b. cochlear implants.

c. otitis media.

d. hearing aids.

______79. Genes

a. are segments of DNA located on a chromosome.

b. each code for a specific hereditary trait.

c. are passed from parent to offspring.

d. All of the above

______80. Sickle cell disease

a. is an inherited disease that leads to the degeneration of brain cells.

b. is an inherited blood disease in which the body produces defective hemoglobin.

c. is an inherited blood disease in which the body produces insufficient quantities or none of the clotting proteins.

d. is an inherited disease of the bodyís mucous glands.

______81. Future treatments for hereditary diseases might include

a. genetic counseling.

b. keeping detailed medical records and following a treatment plan.

c. gene therapy, genetic tests, and drugs that target a particular hereditary disease.

d. keeping up-to-date on medical advances.

Other Diseases and Disabilities

PART I

Match the terms on the left with the definitions on the right.

______ 82. gene therapy

______ 83. hereditary disease

______ 84. complex disease

______ 85. glaucoma

______86. multiple sclerosis

a. hereditary disease caused by more than one gene and/or lifestyle behaviors

b. future treatment for hereditary disease in which a healthy copy of a gene is placed in the cells of a person with a defective copy of the gene

c. condition in which pressure in the eye is elevated, causing vision impairment

d. autoimmune disease in which the body attacks the fatty insulation on nerves

e. a disease caused by abnormal chromosomes or by defective genes inherited from one or both parents

PART II

Write the letter of the best answer on the line.

______ 87. The different types of hereditary diseases are

a. diseases affecting vision, diseases affecting hearing, and diseases affecting movement.

b. single-gene diseases, complex diseases, and chromosomal diseases.

c. immune disorders and autoimmune diseases.

d. All of the above

______ 88. An autoimmune disease is a(n)

a. immune disorder in which the immune system attacks the cells that it normally protects.

b. hereditary disease in which the body attacks myelin.

c. reaction of the immune system to a harmless substance.

d. inflammation of the joints.

______ 89. Ways you can help people cope with disabilities include

a. becoming educated about disabilities.

b. becoming familiar with the ways in which society is becoming accessible to disabled people.

c. maintaining a positive attitude about disabled individuals.

d. All of the above

______ 90. The process of informing a person or couple about their genetic makeup is

a. gene therapy.

b. genetic counseling.

c. a future treatment for genetic disease.

d. important for prevention of tinnitus.

______91. All of the following are examples of immune disorders and autoimmune diseases except

a. allergies.

b. asthma.

c. flu.

d. rheumatoid arthritis.

______92. The Human Genome Project

a. was a research effort to determine the locations of all the genes on human chromosomes.

b. included efforts to read all of the coded instructions on human genes.

c. hoped to provide information that will help treat hereditary diseases.

d. All of the above

______93. All of the following are complex diseases except

a. Down syndrome.

b. stroke.

c. type II diabetes.

d. cancer.

______94. Concerns about genetic information focus on

a. how the information will be used.

b. use of the information to study the past.

c. developing customized drugs for specific diseases.

d. All of the above

______95. Ways to prevent allergic symptoms include

a. avoiding substances that you are allergic to.

b. washing sheets and blankets weekly.

c. cleaning bathrooms and kitchens to remove molds.

d. All of the above

______96. Treatment of disabilities involving vision include

a. cochlear implants.

b. contact and other corrective lenses and laser surgery.

c. regular, intense therapy.

d. hearing aids.